duchy of florence

Region of Siena 1. During the War of the League of Cognac, the Florentines rebelled against the Medici, then represented by Ippolito de' Medici, and restored the freedom of their republic. Don Carlos became King of Naples shortly after his arrival in Florence in 1735, by the Treaty of Turin. Region of Pisa 1. Consisted of the Duchy of Milan, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Florence, Republic of Venice, Papal States, ad the Kingdom of Naples. Torture was also banned. Gian Gastone was not as steadfast in negotiating Tuscany's future as his father was. Leo XI died less than a month later, but fortunately for the Medici his successor Pope Paul V was also pro-Medici. The Grand-Duchy of Tuscany See also the heraldry of Tuscany.. Brief History; The Republic of Florence (to 1530) The Medici grand-dukes of Tuscany (1569-1737) The Habsburg grand-dukes (1737-1801, 1814-60) and the Kingdom of Etruria (1801-07) Tuscany passed to another son, Leopold. Republic of Florence 4. In 1605, Ferdinando succeeded in getting his candidate, Alessandro de' Medici, elected as Pope Leo XI. The Second Austro-Sardinian war broke out in the summer of 1859. The duchy was founded after Emperor Charles V restored Medici rule to Florence in 1530. [4] On 12 August 1530, the Emperor created the Medici hereditary rulers (capo) of the Republic of Florence.[2][5]. In the 19th century the population of the Grand Duchy was about 1,815,000 inhabitants. Another way to form a monarchy is by the event to form Tuscany (which … Leopold was succeeded by Ferdinand III. The ducal family moved into the Palazzo Pitti in 1560. Chiarugi and his collaborators introduced new humanitarian regulations in the running of the hospital and caring for the mentally ill patients, including banning the use of chains and physical punishment, and in so doing have been recognized as early pioneers of what later came to be known as the moral treatment movement.[46]. [31] He imposed crippling taxes[32] while the country's population continued to decline. The grand duke was briefly deposed by a provisional government in 1849. [2][3] Following the Republic's surrender in the Siege of Florence, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor issued a proclamation explicitly stating that he and he alone could determine the government of Florence. The Grand Duchy of five is divided into eight regions.These are: 1. She and her court left on 10 December. This left his eldest son, Francesco, to rule the duchy. The Tuscans despised the new occupying "Lorrainers", as they interfered with the Tuscan government, while the occupying Spaniards had not done so. [16] Ferdinando was forced to marry his heir, Cosimo, to Archduchess Maria Maddalena of Austria to assuage Spain (where Maria Maddalena's sister was the incumbent Queen consort). [26] The exchequer was barely adequate to cover the state's current expenditure, resulting in a complete termination of banking operations for the Medici. [5] Vittoria della Rovere brought the Duchies of Montefeltro and Rovere into the family in 1631, upon her death in 1694, they passed to her younger son, Francesco Maria de' Medici. His wife, Eleanor of Toledo, died in 1562, along with four of his children due to a plague epidemic in Florence. Hale, J.R.: Florence and the Medici, Orion books, London, Allessandro is usually considered an illegitimate son of. Like his uncle, Francesco I, government held no appeal for him, and Tuscany was ruled by his ministers. Ferdinand IV's hypothetical reign didn't last long; the House of Habsburg-Lorraine was formally deposed by the National Assembly on 16 August 1859.[49]. He was restored the same year by Austrian troops. Cosimo I de Medici, painted by Giorgio Vasari (1563–1565, Palazzo Vecchio) Cosimo I was a great patron of the arts and commissioned works on a regular basis. In 1569, Cosimo de' Medicihad ruled the Duchy of Florencefor 32 years. Following Ferdinand's death, his elder son, Leopold II, succeeded him. Ferdinando died in 1609, leaving an affluent realm; however, his inaction in international affairs drew Tuscany into the provincial yolk of politics. However, the constitution was so radically new that it garnered opposition even from those who might have benefited from it. [17] Cosimo commissioned the architect Vasari to build the Uffizi, as offices for the Medici bank, continuing the Medici tradition of patronage of the arts. Christina dominated her grandson long after he came of age until her death in 1636. Every grand duke after Leopold resided in Florence. “During this period, Italy—and in the fifteenth century, Florence above all—is the seat of an artistic, humanistic, technological, and scientific flowering known as the Renaissance. [8] Cosimo also was a long-term supporter of Pope Pius V, who in the light of Florence's expansion in August 1569 declared Cosimo Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title unprecedented in Italy. [22] His mother and grandmother arranged a marriage with Vittoria della Rovere, a granddaughter of the Duke of Urbino, in 1634. Leopold also abolished capital punishment. the Council of Two Hundred was a petitions court; membership was for life. He was the son of Giovanni dalle Bande Nere and Maria Salviati, from a side branch of the Medici family, and… [23], Ferdinando was obsessed with new technology, and had several hygrometers, barometers, thermometers, and telescopes installed in the Pitti. [47][48], The Napoleonic system collapsed in 1814, and the following territorial settlement, the Congress of Vienna, ceded the State of Presidi to a restored Tuscany. The document in question was officiated on the 27th of that month. Region of Florence 1. Florence starts as an Oligarchic Republic, this means that upon ruler death the player will be able to decide which government form to choose. Despite his attempts at acquiescence, street fighting in opposition to the regime sprang up in August, in Livorno. The grand duke Leopold II agreed to ratify a liberal constitution in 1848. While not as internationally renowned as the old republic, the grand duchy thrived under the Medici and it bore witness to unprecedented economic and military success under Cosimo I and his sons, until the reign of Ferdinando II, which saw the beginning of the state's long economic decline. Following the collapse of the Napoleonic system in 1814, the grand duchy was restored. [11] The administration of the state was delegated to bureaucrats. In 1803, the first King of Etruria, Louis I, died and was succeeded by his infant son, Charles Louis, under the regency of his mother, Queen María Luisa. Region of Masacarara 1. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (or Granducato di Toscana in Italian) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence. Marie's father Stanisław I of Poland ruled Lorraine as compensation for his loss of the Kingdom of Poland. [49] The Austrian garrison was withdrawn in 1855. Upon arrival, he abdicated in favour of his elder son, Ferdinand. Girolamo Savonarola (UK: / ˌ s æ v ɒ n ə ˈ r oʊ l ə /, US: / ˌ s æ v ə n-, s ə ˌ v ɒ n-/, Italian: [dʒiˈrɔːlamo savonaˈrɔːla]; 21 September 1452 – 23 May 1498) was an Italian Dominican friar from Ferrara and preacher active in Renaissance Florence.He was known for his prophecies of civic glory, the destruction of secular art and culture, and his calls for Christian renewal. Republic of Venice - most politically stable-> controlled Mediterranean commerce - had state fleet more than 3000 ships & huge arsenal that produced ship parts, cannons, other related products - ruled by a doge/duke Cosimo III was succeeded by his son, Gian Gastone, who, for most of his life, kept to his bed and acted in an unregal manner, rarely appearing to his subjects, to the extent that, at times, he had been thought dead. When the new Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed in 1861 Florence was chosen as the seat of government and remained such till 1871. During his reign, Florence purchased the island of Elbafrom the Republic of Genoa(in 1548),[6]conquered Siena(in 1555)[7]and developed a well-equipped and powerful naval base on Elba. The grand duchy's capital was Florence. This led to a regency of Ferdinand's grandmother, Dowager Grand Duchess Christina, and his mother, Maria Maddalena of Austria. During his reign, Florence purchased the island of Elba from the Republic of Genoa (in 1548),[6] conquered Siena (in 1555)[7] and developed a well-equipped and powerful naval base on Elba. [14], Ferdinando eagerly assumed the government of Tuscany. He revamped the taxation and tariff system. [35] He sent munitions to the Emperor during the Battle of Vienna. The interest rate was lowered by 0.75%. This is the last stage in the political history of Florence as a distinct state; henceforth the political history of the city is that of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. [5] Italy was unified in 1870, when the remains of the Papal States were annexed in that September, deposing Pope Pius IX. [54] The Council of Two Hundred was a petitions court; membership was for life. It abolished the age-old signoria (elective government) and the office of gonfaloniere (titular head-of-state elected for a two month-term) and replaced it with three institutions: Even after Alessandro's accession, Imperial troops remained stationed in Florence. Script error: The function "getCommonsLink" does not exist. Administered by Florence during the Middle Ages as the League of Chianti, these lands were contested through the centuries by Arezzo, Siena and Florence, until 1555 when all … [16] Ferdinando sponsored a Tuscan colony in America, with the intention of establishing a Tuscan settlement in the area of what is now French Guiana. Capital county bonus: All holdings directly owned by the duke-tier character within the capital county recieve +50% levy bonus if the ruler is independent; 2. Ferdinando's elder son, Cosimo, mounted the throne following his death. [43] The administrative structure of the grand duchy itself would see little change under Francis I. Francis' second surviving son Peter Leopold became grand duke of Tuscany and ruled the country until his brother Joseph's death. Elevated from Duchy of Florence. [53] To be eligible, one had to be male and a noble. Neither of Cosimo's two sons was a suitable heir; Ferdinando was an alcoholic and epileptic, while his younger son, Gian Gastone, according to historian Paul Strathern, was not appropriate material[clarification needed] for the role of sovereign. [40] In 1731, the Powers gathered at Vienna to decide who would succeed Gian Gastone. Siena was ruled by a governor appointed by the grand duke. The Spanish reaction was to construct a citadel on their portion of the island of Elba. The government was finally dissolved upon its annexation to the United Provinces of Central Italy in 1859. After a period under Lombard rule, the duchy of Tuscia, which covered Tuscany, Umbria, much of Lazio and Corsica, fell under the control of the Holy Roman Empire, created in 800 when Charlemagne was crowned by the pope in Rome. Duchy of Milan 3. The fortunes of the Medici were directly tied to the Tuscan economy.[19]. Tuscany during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; House of Commons, John Bowring, 1839, p 6, Austria and Spain were ruled by the House of Habsburg; the two are interchangeable terms for the time period in question, Mora, G. (1959) Vincenzo Chiarugi (1759–1820) and his psychiatric reform in Florence in the late 18th century (on the occasion of the bi-centenary of his birth), Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro, Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Electress Palatine, "COSIMO III de' Medici, granduca di Toscana in "Dizionario Biografico, "Leopold II (holy Roman emperor) -- Encyclopædia Britannica", Bandiere degli Stati italiani preunitari: Toscana, "Leopold II (grand duke of Tuscany) -- Encyclopædia Britannica", Parliamentary papers, Volume 16 By the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Leopold felt obliged to espouse Austria's cause. Italian nationalism exploded in the post-Napoleonic years, leading to the establishment of secret societies bent on a unified Italy. [11], As Alessandro left no legitimate issue,[3] the question of succession was open. A few years later Leopold undertook the project of building a new hospital, the Bonifacio. The constitution was revoked in 1852. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor proclaimed Alessandro de' Medici, ruler of Florence "for his lifetime, and after his death to be succeeded by his sons, male heirs and successors, of his body, by order of primogeniture, and failing them by the closest male of the Medici family, and likewise in succession forever, by order of primogeniture. These deaths were to affect him greatly, which, along with illness, forced Cosimo to unofficially abdicate in 1564. Pope Clement VII intended his relative[6] Alessandro de' Medici to be the ruler of Florence, but also wanted to give the impression that the Florentines had democratically chosen Alessandro as their ruler. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}43°N 11°E / 43°N 11°E / 43; 11, The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Italian: Granducato di Toscana; Latin: Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Republic of Florence. Ruling house of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany 1569–1737 Succeeded by House of Lorraine: Last edited on 6 December 2020, at 16:08. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Italian: Granducato di Toscana; Latin: Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Republic of Florence. Florentine authorities selected Cosimo I[12] At the news of this, the exiled Strozzi family invaded and tried to depose Cosimo, but failed. [5] The plan was about to be approved by the powers convened at Geertruidenberg when Cosimo abruptly added that if himself and his two sons predeceased his daughter, the Electress Palatine, she should succeed and the republic be re-instituted following her death. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany is a gargantuan, safe nation, ruled by Leopold II with an even hand, and renowned for its compulsory military service and keen interest in outer space. The city had constituted a republic just before her death. They were divided because the stato nuovo was a Spanish fief and the stato vecchio an Imperial one. Queen Catherine of France, though herself a Medici, viewed Cosimo with the utmost disdain. [52] Pope Clement VII willed his relative Alessandro de' Medici to be the monarchical ruler of Florence, and went about requisitioning that dignity carefully; he wanted to give the impression that the Florentines democratically chose Alessandro to be their monarch. The Senate, composed of forty-eight men, chosen by the constitutional reform commission, was vested with the prerogative of determining Florence's financial, security, and foreign policies. He was elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1745. Whence these leagues arrived in Tuscany, a concerned Ferdinand requisitioned an Austrian garrison, from his brother Emperor Francis of Austria, for the defence of the state. [15] He commanded the draining of the Tuscan marshlands, built a road network in Southern Tuscany, and cultivated trade in Livorno. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence. Florence became a duchy in 1532 and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1569. He also instituted several laws censoring education[30] and introduced anti-Jewish legislation. Cosimo married Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, a granddaughter of Henry IV of France and Marie de' Medici. Ferdinand III resumed his rule, and died in 1824. Tuscany was divided into two main administrative districts: the stato nuovo (the new state) consisting of the former Republic of Siena, and the stato vecchio (the old state), the old Republic of Florence and her dependencies. Leopold was contemporarily acknowledged as a liberal monarch. [7] In April 1532, the Pope convinced the Balía, Florence's ruling commission, to draw up a new constitution, which formally created a hereditary monarchy. [9] Rumours circulated at the Viennese court that had Cosimo as a candidate for King of England. The two areas were governed by separate laws. [24] In 1657, Leopoldo de' Medici, the Grand Duke's youngest brother, established the Accademia del Cimento, which set up to attract scientists from all over Tuscany to Florence for mutual study. He established a new dynasty that perpetuated the family’s traditional regard for the arts and sciences. Papal States 5. [36] Meanwhile, the state's capital, Florence, had become full of beggars. [27] The economy was so decrepit that barter trade became prevalent in rural market places. While he was in a service in the cathedral one day, he was distracted by a bronze lamp hanging from the ceiling. [10], Alessandro continued to rule Florence for another two years until he was murdered on January 1, 1537 by his distant relative Lorenzino de' Medici. The duchy was founded after Emperor Charles V restored Medici rule to Florence in 1530. Region of Lucca 1. Region of Arezzo 1. Region of Prato 1. [18] Francesco and Ferdinando, due to lax distinction between Medici and Tuscan state property, are thought to be wealthier than their ancestor, Cosimo de' Medici, the founder of the dynasty. Leopold also approved and collaborated on the development of a political constitution, said to have anticipated by many years the promulgation of the French constitution and which presented some similarities with the Virginia Bill of Rights of 1778. Cosimo de’ Medici (1519–74), great-great-grandson of Lorenzo, became duke of Florence, then grand duke of Tuscany (1569), and reigned as Cosimo I. Galileo used the pulse of his heart to keep the time and was surprised to discover the lamp’s oscillation period was unaffected by the arc’s size of oscillation. In February 1849, Leopold II had to abandon Tuscany to Republicans and sought refuge in the Neapolitan city of Gaeta. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a central Italian monarchy that existed from 1569 to 1801 and from 1815 to 1859, with Florence serving as its capital. Leopold's concept of this was based on respect for the political rights of citizens and on a harmony of power between the executive and the legislative. These measures, which disturbed the deeply rooted convictions of his people and brought him into collision with the pope, were not successful. [3], Initially, Tuscany was ruled by the House of Medici until the extinction of its senior branch in 1737. Region of Livorno 1. On 30 November 1786, after having de facto blocked capital executions (the last was in 1769), Leopold promulgated the reform of the penal code that abolished the death penalty and ordered the destruction of all the instruments for capital execution in his land. [14] He was succeeded by Ferdinando de' Medici, his younger brother, whom he loathed. Leopold attempted to secularize the property of the religious houses or to put the clergy entirely under the control of the government. In Leopold's years Italy was engulfed in popular rebellion, culminating in the Revolutions of 1848. [14] Francesco is best remembered for dying on the same day as his second wife, Bianca Cappello, spurring rumours of poisoning. This constitution was still in effect through the Medicean grand duchy, albeit the institutions decayed and powerless by the rule of Ferdinando II. Cosimo also banned the clergy from holding administrative positions and promulgated laws of freedom of religion, which were unknown during his time. The said revolution toppled the throne of France, and caused disarray across Europe. The Duchy of Florence was an Italian principality that was centred on the city of Florence, in Tuscany, Italy During the War of the League of Cognac, the Florentines rebelled against the Medici, then represented by Ippolito de' Medici, and restored the freedom of their republic. The second Duke, Cosimo I, established a strong Florentine navy and expanded his territory, purchasing Elba and conquering Siena. [2] The grand duchy's capital was Florence. It peaked under Cosimo III. The men were chosen from the most powerful guilds, namely, those representing the major clothing industries. [13], Francesco had little interest in governing his realm, instead participating in scientific experiments. [5], Civil flag and civil ensign(1815-1848, 1849-1860), State flag with Lesser Coat of arms(1815-1848, 1849-1860), State flag with Great Coat of arms(1765-1800, 1815–1848, 1849-1860)[44], Flag of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany(1848-1849), Lesser Coat of arms(1815-1848, 1849-1860), Great Coat of arms(1765-1800, 1815–1848, 1849-1860)[44], Flag of Grand Duchy of Tuscany(1562-1737), Former Italian state (1569–1801; 1815–1859). Much to their dismay, the Emperor rejected their appeal. House of Commons –, The Papal Bull that created the Grand Duchy, Patria del Friuli (Patriarchate of Aquileia), Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states, Museum of the Risorgimento (Castelfidardo), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Grand_Duchy_of_Tuscany&oldid=995098588, Former countries on the Italian Peninsula, States and territories established in 1569, States and territories disestablished in 1859, 1569 establishments in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, 1801 disestablishments in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, 1815 establishments in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, 1859 disestablishments in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Articles containing Italian-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2013, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 06:02. [43], Leopold developed and supported many social and economic reforms. They reverted to the crown with the ascension of Gian Gastone. It formally created a hereditary monarchy, abolished the age-old signoria (elective government) and the office of gonfaloniere (titular ruler of Florence elected for a two-month term); in their place was the consigliere, a four-man council elected for a three-month term, headed by the "Duke of the Florentine Republic" (and later the Grand Duke of Tuscany). The Peace of Villafranca allowed Leopold to return once more. Eldest son, Ferdinando succeeded in getting his candidate, Alessandro de ' Medicihad ruled Duchy! Abdicate in 1564 post-Napoleonic years, leading to the regime sprang up in August, in.! Garrison was withdrawn in 1855 Two Hundred was a Spanish fief and the Medici, younger... To ratify a liberal constitution ; and instituted a liberal constitution ; and instituted a liberal constitution ; and a. 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